SQL Introduction

Platforms to lean SQL and copy SQL Dump to create sample student table with records and basics

Once our database and script installation is over then we can learn how to manage Database .
SQL ( Structured Query Language ) is one of the important tool for programmers. Sql is a part of the database management tool.

Types of SQL commands

  • DDL - Data Definition Language

    DDL is used to define and manage the structure of a database and its objects.
  • DML - Data Manipulation Language

    DML is concerned with modifying and manipulating data stored in a database.
  • DQL - Data Query Language

    DQL is specifically designed for querying and retrieving information from databases.
  • DCL - Data Control Language

    DCL includes commands that are responsible for granting or revoking permissions, privileges, and roles to users and roles, thus ensuring data security and access control
  • TCL - Transaction Control Language

    TCL is used for managing transactions within a database. A transaction is a sequence of one or more database operations (such as data manipulation or data definition) that are executed as a single unit of work.

DQL - Data Query Language

SELECTCollect rows from Table
WHERE Add condition to collect rows from the table
BETWEEN Condition to get Rows from a range of values
CASE Returns first matching condition with Else if not matched
COUNT Number of rows with matching conditions
CONCAT Join strings or column data
DISTINCT Unique records
GROUP BY Grouping data and counting
GROUP_CONCATGrouping Concatenated non-NULL values
HAVINGGrouping with condition
ISChecks data against Boolean values
IFChecking Condition with Group By
INNER JOIN Join tables
IN Rows Matching a List of data
Left joinJoining two tables and getting matching records with unique combination
LimitGetting limited records with starting and ending limit
LikeMatching record with wildcard and formatting
LocateMatching record and getting position of the search string
MAXHighest number of a column ( math functions: min, sum, average etc )
NULL valueMissing or unknown data
Over() Grouping window function using over() and partition
Order By displaying A to Z or Maximum to Minimum data
OR ANDLogical operators to use in a query
RandRandom records from a table
ReplaceUpdating part of data
REGEXPRegular expression to match pattern in string data
SubqueriesQuery inside a query
UnionJoining tables and getting records

There are many databases available from different vendors. For web applications MSSQL, MySQL, SQLite are mostly used. Oracle is very popular among enterprise users. MySQL community server can be downloaded from mysql.net and it is free.

Combination of PHP ( scripting language ) and MySQL ( database server ) is the most popular in the world today among all web applications.

What is SQL

Sql is a common language to manage all the operations for a database. There are different SQL commands available to manage the database. You need not start reading or take training on all the commands at a time, you can use this site as a referance and read all our free tutorials on SQL.
Scripts and SQL in Database
Now let us start with simple query to create table to store our student records. Then we will use insert query to add few records. Don't worry to understand all the meanings of the Query at this stage. Use this SQL to create the table.
CREATE TABLE student ( id int(2) NOT NULL auto_increment,  name varchar(50) NOT NULL default '', 
class varchar(10) NOT NULL default '', mark int(3) NOT NULL default '0', 
This will create the table for us. We can see that there are three fields in the table. One is id which is an auto increment and will take one unique number each time one record is added to the table. Next field is name of 50 length, this will store the student name. Next is class field of 10 length.

Adding records

Let us fill the tables with some data. Here is the SQL to insert the data to the table. We need not worry at this stage how this SQL works as we will discuss that in other pages.  You can just copy and paste this SQL code in your SQL window to insert some records to the tables.
INSERT INTO student VALUES (1, 'John Deo', 'Four', 75);
INSERT INTO student VALUES (2, 'Max Ruin', 'Three', 85);
INSERT INTO student VALUES (3, 'Arnold', 'Three', 55);
INSERT INTO student VALUES (4, 'Krish Star', 'Four', 60);
INSERT INTO student VALUES (5, 'John Mike', 'Four', 60);
INSERT INTO student VALUES (6, 'Alex John', 'Five', 55);
This SQL code will insert six records to the student table. Now our table with data is ready. We will start learning one SQL command now .
Installation of Database Tables & records of a Database Managing MySQL SELECT Query
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    nice tutorials
    Randy Orton


    What is diferrence among SQL,MySQL and Oracle. I wanna Know that..!


    these are different database servers made by different companies.
    Wathum Nestore


    I like what this site gives to the public!


    Need a step by step guide to the selection query and the rest of the most common queries and how to build put them all together


    i have just one word for this tutorial "awesome".

    Post your comments , suggestion , error , requirements etc here

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