Tkinter Menu

Tkinter
menu in Tkinter GUI

Tkinter menu with options & methods to add checkbox radio buttons items with tearoff and separators
import tkinter  as tk 
my_w = tk.Tk()
my_w.geometry("350x120")  

def my_fun():
    pass
menubar = tk.Menu(my_w)

menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar, tearoff=0,bg='yellow') # file
menu_edit=tk.Menu(menubar,tearoff=0)  # edit menu 

menubar.add_cascade(label="File", menu=menu_file) # Top Line
menubar.add_cascade(label="Edit", menu=menu_edit) # Top Line

menu_file.add_command(label="New", command=my_fun()) # Item 1 of file
menu_file.add_command(label="Open..", command=my_fun()) # Item 2  
#menu_file.add_command(label="Exit", command=lambda:exit()) # Item 3 
#menu_file.add_command(label="Exit", command=my_w.destroy) # Item 3  
menu_file.add_command(label="Exit", command=my_w.quit) # Item 3  

menu_edit.add_command(label="Undo", command=my_fun())# Item 1 of Edit 
menu_edit.add_command(label="Redo", command=my_fun())# Item 2 of Edit 

my_w.config(menu=menubar) # adding menu to window
my_w.mainloop()
We have added option bg='yellow' to set background colour to Yellow. Here is the list of options we can add.

Options :

activebackground

Background colour when mouse is over one option ( choice ) of the menu.

activeborderwidth

Width of the border when mouse is over the menu. default is 1

activeforeground

Foreground colour when mouse is over the menu. ( Font is yellow in bellow picture )

bg

Background colour of the menu. ( The File menu background is Yellow here )
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar, tearoff=1,bg='yellow',
 activebackground='red',activeborderwidth=3,activeforeground='yellow')
Menu Options active

bd

Border width of the options. (To check , detach the menu by clicking on tearoff=1 and then watch the border width.)

cursor

The shape of cursor when mouse is over the menu. List of cursor shapes are avaialble at Button Page. (To check , detach the menu by clicking on tearoff=1 and then watch the change in Cursor.)

disabledforeground

The colour of the disabled option when cursor is over it.
We have disabled the open.. option
menu_file.entryconfig(2,state='disabled')
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar, tearoff=1,bg='yellow',
 activebackground='green',activeforeground='yellow',
 disabledforeground='red')
disabledforeground Option

font

my_font1=('Times',16,'bold')
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar, tearoff=False,bg='yellow',font=my_font1)

fg

menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar, fg='red',tearoff=0,
      bg='yellow',font=my_font1)
fg option of  menu

postcommand

We used postcommand here to run the function Change_color(color) which run once in every 1 second due to recursive call using after(). The fg=color will toggle the font color to red and green every 1 second.
def Change_colour(color):
    if color=='green':
        color='red'
    else:
        color='green'
    menu_file.config(fg=color)    
    my_w.after(1000,Change_colour, color)    
menubar = tk.Menu(my_w)
my_font1=('Times',18,'bold')
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar, fg='red',tearoff=0,bg='yellow',
font=my_font1, postcommand=lambda: Change_colour('green'))

relief

3-D effect of border of the menu

image

Displaying image on menu.

selectcolor

menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar,title='my title' ,
    tearoff=False,fg='red',bg='yellow',selectcolor='blue')
selectcolor separator option of  menu
Colour of selected Checkbutton and radiobutton.

tearoff

If tearoff is set as 1 ( tearoff=1 ) then the menu can be taken out from the menu bar. Click the dashed line at the top to detach the menu. It can take values True or False.
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar,title='my title' ,
     tearoff=1,fg='red',bg='yellow')
fg option of  menu

title

Title of the tearoff menu.
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar, title='my title',tearoff=1,bg='yellow')

Methods

add_command()

Add item to the menu.
menu_file.add_command(label="New", command=my_fun())

add_radiobutton()

Adding radiobutton to the menu.
menu_file.add_radiobutton(label='Option 1',value=0,variable=optvar)

add_checkbutton

Adding checkbutton to the menu
menu_file.add_checkbutton(label='Chk 1',onvalue=1,offvalue=0,variable=chkvar0)
menu_file.add_checkbutton(label='Chk 2',onvalue=1,offvalue=0,variable=chkvar1)

add_cascade

Add menu to the top
menubar.add_cascade(label="File", menu=menu_file)

add_separator()

Check above image for the added separator
menu_file.add_separator()

add

Add specific type of menu items to the menu.

delete

delete from start index to end index
menu_file.delete(0,2)

entryconfig

Disable the item with index position 2 ( check disabledforeground option above )
menu_file.entryconfig(2,state='disabled')

index(item)

Return the index number of input item.
print(menu_file.index('Chk 1')) # 8 

insert_separator(index)

Insert separator at input index position.
menu_file.insert_separator(4)

invoke(index)

For checkbox toggles the selection. For radio button choice is set.
menu_file.invoke(5)

type(index)

Returns the type of choice at the input index position.
print(menu_file.type(5)) # radiobutton
print(menu_file.type(7)) # separator
print(menu_file.type(9)) # checkbutton

Adding Sub menu

Sub-menu with main menu
import tkinter  as tk 
my_w = tk.Tk()
my_w.geometry("250x120")  

def my_fun():
    pass

menubar = tk.Menu(my_w)
my_font1=('Times',12,'bold')
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar,title='my title' ,
    tearoff=1,fg='red',bg='yellow') # file
menu_edit=tk.Menu(menubar,tearoff=0)  # edit menu 
menu_sub=tk.Menu(menu_file,tearoff=0,bg='green')
menu_file.add_cascade(label='Sub 1',menu=menu_sub ) # add sub
menu_sub.add_command(label='Sub 11',command=my_fun()) 
menu_sub.add_command(label='Sub 12',command=my_fun())

menubar.add_cascade(label="File", menu=menu_file) # Top Line
menubar.add_cascade(label="Edit", menu=menu_edit) # Top Line

menu_file.add_command(label="New", command=my_fun()) # Item 1 of file
menu_file.add_command(label="Open..", command=my_fun()) # Item 2  
menu_file.add_separator()

menu_file.add_command(label="Exit", command=my_w.quit) # Item 3  
menu_edit.add_command(label="Undo", command=my_fun())# Item 1 of Edit 
menu_edit.add_command(label="Redo", command=my_fun())# Item 2 of Edit 

my_w.config(menu=menubar) # adding menu to window
my_w.mainloop()

Adding sub menu to sub menu

Sub menu of Sub menu
menu_sub2=tk.Menu(menu_sub,tearoff=0,bg='red')
menu_sub.add_cascade(label='Sub 2',menu=menu_sub2)
menu_sub2.add_command(label='Sub 21',command=my_fun())
menu_sub2.add_command(label='Child ',command=lambda:my_child())

Open new window on Menu click

Child window  using Toplevel
We can open a child window on click of a menu item. To work on Toplevel we have to add this line at the top.
from tkinter import *
from tkinter import *
def my_child():
    my_w_child=Toplevel(my_w) # Child window 
    my_w_child.geometry("200x200")  # Size of the window 
    my_w_child.title("www.plus2net.com")
    my_str1 = tk.StringVar()
    l1 = tk.Label(my_w_child,  textvariable=my_str1 )
    l1.grid(row=1,column=2) 
    my_str1.set("Hi I am Child window")
menubar = tk.Menu(my_w)
menu_file = tk.Menu(menubar,tearoff=0) # file
menu_edit=tk.Menu(menubar,tearoff=0)  # edit menu 
menubar.add_cascade(label="File", menu=menu_file) # Top Line
menubar.add_cascade(label="Edit", menu=menu_edit) # Top Line
menu_file.add_command(label="New window", command=lambda:my_child())
menu_file.add_command(label="Exit", command=my_w.quit)
Tkinter window Adding Sub menu to main menu and opening child window from menu command

OptionMenu Projects in Tkinter

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